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坚华嘉措(本人的博客独此一家,绝无分店)

愿一切见闻者早日解脱!随喜转载

 
 
 

日志

 
 

待每一个人如佛  

2017-11-06 11:35:58|  分类: 噶玛巴与噶举 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
待每一个人如佛-咏给*明就仁波切二〇一七年八月九日 - 坚华嘉措 - 坚华嘉措(本人的博客独此一家,绝无分店)
待每一个人如佛-咏给*明就仁波切二〇一七年八月九日 - 坚华嘉措 - 坚华嘉措(本人的博客独此一家,绝无分店)

 待每一个人如佛-咏给*明就仁波切二〇一七年八月九日

转载翻译自狮子吼杂志

翻译:释了觉

「针对道德部份有人对我唯一一次的提问,是关于教界间发生的丑闻与纷争。」咏给˙明就仁波切说。如他所述,道德行为是佛教修行道上的核心。仁波切在此将阐明何谓过一个合乎道德生活的含义,一位学生应从老师身上寻找什么特质,当发生严重违反道德的事件时,该如何处理等。

身为佛教导师,我常被问及禅修和甚深的佛学教义,如缘起和空性。关于这些课题,我欢喜分享我所知。然而,我发现关于道德及如何过一个有品德的生活之相关课题,却鲜少有人提问。

无庸置疑的,禅修在佛教的传统里确实很重要,佛教义理及教义的研习亦同等重要。然而在许多方面,道德及美德却是佛教修道上的基础。

佛陀自身过着一个善良、谦和及慈悲的生活,此全然体现了他所给予的教导,跟随他的僧团皆以佛陀为典范。很多时候,弟子偏离了道德规范并做了不善行,有些行为甚至令人啼笑皆非,但是这些事故都成为教学契机,来厘清重要价值观及体现如何过一个有品德的生活。从佛教早期开始,道德规范就有着与禅修、研习及观修同等重要的地位。

近来有人针对道德相关部份对我唯一一次的提问,是关于教界发生的丑闻及纷争。尽管在佛教传统中,「慈悲」及「不伤害」显然是重要的,然而在面对这些状况时,许多学生却不确定应该如何应对。我能了解为何他们感到困惑。佛教有许多不同的传承及教派,要能掌握各个教派及传承的教导、修持及道德规范架构是不容易的。

我们如何将「不伤害」及「慈悲」的原则,运用在寻找真正的老师,及应对在社会生活中不可避免的挑战?

这一点在藏传佛教而言尤其如此,我们有三种不同的方法,即「乘」或「乘载的工具」,交织融合为佛教修持的一条道路。这三乘即是着重于自解脱的「声闻乘」、着重于慈悲的「大乘」及着重于不可毁坏之觉醒的「金刚乘」。这三者的融合是藏传佛教特殊及美好之处,然而教法并不会因此而化繁为简。

 

藏传佛教的道德

在藏传佛教中,我们融合三乘而修持,这亦包含了道德的实践。让我来阐明。

对于着重自解脱的声闻乘而言,最基本的道德戒律是「不伤害」,无论任何情况下都坚守着不伤害众生的承诺。

当我们涉入大乘时,在没有忘失「不伤害」的原则下,我们更迈进一步地修习菩提心。菩提心是帮助一切众生成就佛果的承诺。

最后,金刚乘带入了「净观」的概念。在金刚乘的修习中,我们以「不伤害」及「利他」为动机的菩提心作为坚固的基础,进而修习「以果为道」的见地。我们待一切人、事、物为全然觉醒的显现,亦承诺视自己及他人,乃至周遭世界为本然清净、完美及圆满。

这理想的净观体现于三昧耶戒里,即金刚乘行者所遵守的誓言。三昧耶戒有许多细节,简要言之,三昧耶戒的重点是尽己所能地修习净观。

许多人误以为三昧耶戒仅是视上师为全然觉悟的佛,这只是三昧耶戒的一部分,而且已失去了三昧耶戒的关键要素。三昧耶戒的修持,主要是透过净观之镜,来看待一切人、事及物。视上师为佛的唯一目的,是为了让我们藉此而看见,此觉醒的特质亦存在于自己、他人,乃至周遭的世界中。这工具辅助我们生起「自性本净」的信心。

金刚乘的修持根植于圆满的「不伤害」及「慈悲」为原则,倘若没有这二者,则无金刚乘。那么,我们应如何运用这些原则作为引导,来寻找真正的老师,以及应对在社会生活中无可避免的挑战?

 

修持的要点

我想提出的第一个要点,或许是最显而易见的,我们的修持应让我们能充分发挥身为人最美好的特质。它应能唤起我们本俱的智慧、理智及分辨善恶的道德指南,无论我们是否发觉自己本俱这些特质。

针对我们的修行进行测验的基本方法,是检视自己是否更趋近善良、谦逊、诚实及智慧的这些理想特质。无论作为个体或社群,如果我们发现自己反向而行,就意味着已偏离于法。我们任何人都无法在每一种情况下有着圆满的作业或行为。但是随着时间的推移,应明显趋向这些人类基本及普遍的价值观。

心灵导师尤其如此。对于他们所领导的社群而言,佛教导师是典范及向导;对于非佛教界而言,他们代表了佛教的传统。身为实践佛陀教法的学生,我们努力让自己变得更善良、谦卑并热衷于修行,但这只能在我们的导师具备这些特质的情况下,方才符合情理。老师们需以善良及热衷启发我们,他们需以关怀与关爱来待人,以注入信任。当然,我们不应期待完美,但是无庸讳言,教导者应能落实他们所教导的法。

 

寻找真正的上师

当提及寻找真正的上师时,有四个重要的要点。

第一,上师应是真正教法传承持有者。真正的老师不会标榜自己,他们推崇传承。如果一位老师吹嘘自己的特质及体证,并把修行当作表演,这揭示了事情或许有点不对劲。但是,如果一位老师曾经在其他德高望重的老师指导下,进行闻思及修行,并藉由维护传承的价值与传统来光耀其法脉,这是好的征兆。仅有传承并无法让一位老师成为真正的老师,但是拥有传承是重要的。

一位真正的老师是值得信任的,他会将学生的需要置于首位。

第二,老师应具有闻思及修持的意愿,这是非常明显的。你是否会向一位不精通钢琴的人学习弹钢琴呢?当然不会。同样的,如果你将心灵福祉托付在某人身上,你应该先确认这人是否对修行之道有亲自体验的直接了知。为此,老师须对自己的修持及训练有显著的意愿。

第三个重要的特质是慈悲。身为一位学生,我们必须相信老师是支持我们、并与我们同在的。他们念兹在兹为了让我们获得最大的利益,深切关怀我们以及我们在道上的进展。

信任在这里是关键。一位真正的老师是值得信任的,他将学生的需要置于首位。老师具备此特质的征兆,是学生在他们的关爱下觉得安全且受到保护。学生们知道,无论在生命中发生任何事情,他们的老师会一直在身边给予引导及支持。

第四,也是最后一项特质,与道德有最直接的关联。一位真正的老师应持守他们的誓言与戒律。在藏地的传承中,这意味着他们继续持守已受持的出家或在家戒律,同时持守大乘的菩萨戒及金刚乘的三昧耶誓言。

这是重要且不可轻忽的。这间中有很多细节。身为学生的我们或许无法准确地知道某人持守什么戒律,但是我们可以从旁询问及检视老师的行为是否有任何问题,这是一个良好的起点。

在今时今日,要觅得一位完美的老师是困难的。在佛陀时代,人们仅在闻法场合出现就获得了证悟,这样的时代已经成为过去。我们或许无法找到四种特质完全圆满的老师,但是在某些程度上,应在全部四种特质上都具备一些。如果一位老师完全没有其中一项特质,或甚至缺乏更多,离开或许是最好的选择。

 

离开一位老师

此四项特质是寻找老师的重要指南。虽然我们已在事前对观察老师的部份尽心,但是一般来说,我们只在当了老师的学生后,方才真正认识一位老师。在现代的世界里,我们大多数人无法在大街上就能找到一间寺院或一位佛教专家。我们不一定知道一位老师的所有详情,或找到可询问之人。那么,当我们发现一位老师并不如我们所期待的一般,我们该怎么做呢?

许多藏传佛教的学生误以为,一旦他们与老师有了师生的承诺,就不能,或不该离开这一位老师,然而事实并非如此。师生关系的要点在于学生受益,而非老师得到利益或收获。如果你已经尽力,但始终发现不太合适,你可以寻找其他的老师。这不是一个问题,也无关乎个人的失败,这出自于良好的判断。

最好的离开方式是不对老师苛刻批评。对于或许能从该位老师和团体中得益的人,也不为他们制造障碍及困难。最好能在保持良好的关系下离开,至少不要在把关系闹得非常恶劣的情况下离开。单纯并谦卑地离开,切勿对无法顺利依止而感到糟透了。

我在这里想给予的忠告是,对自己要诚实。对于离开一位不适合的老师或社群,这是可以被理解的。但是如果你发现每一位老师都不配或不值得你花时间学习依止,那你应深入地审查自己的模式,看看发生了什么事。如果你追求完美,在道上你将难以获得进展。

 

严重的道德违反

然而,当一位老师严重地违反道德,这是全然不同的两回事。如果离开一位老师,仅是适合或不适合的因素,在保持良好的关系下离开是合乎情理的。然而,如果牵涉有人被伤害或抵触法律,这情况将有所不同。

如果有人被伤害了,受害者的安全绝对是首要考虑。这不是佛教的原则,而是身为人的基本价值观,不容违反。

在这情况下,道德伦理的违反是需要加以解决的问题。如果发生了身体的伤害、性侵、财务不法,或触犯其他道德规范,为了学生、社群及老师的最高利益,应好好处理此事。总归以上,如果有人被伤害了,受害者的安全绝对是首要考虑。这不是佛教的原则,而是身为人的基本价值观,不容违反。

应视情况而作适当的响应。在一些个案中,若一位老师行为不当或具伤害性,但承认错误并承诺未来不再犯,如此内部处理就已足够。但是,如果已是长期性的道德违犯模式,或已过份凌虐,或该位老师并不愿意承担责任,那将他们的行为公开处理并没有不妥。

在这种情况下,把这令人难过的事件摊在阳光下,并不违背三昧耶誓愿。针对破坏性行为公开指名是必须采取的一步,以保护正被伤害的受害者,或未来可能被伤害者。这也是维护健康社会所须采取的措施。

 

疯狂智慧

在金刚乘的历史渊源中,有着奇异瑜伽士、瑜伽女及上师们,以激烈方法引导学生的事迹。最有名的例子是马尔巴大师及密勒日巴的典故。马尔巴大师命密勒日巴建造系列石塔,又命他拆毁所建立的石塔。这「疯狂智慧」的传承是真实的,然而很不幸地,这常被合理化为道德违反的行为,无关智慧与慈悲。

我们必须知道的重点是:这些不寻常的教学方式是为了利益学生而设。如果那不是出自于慈悲与智慧,他们就不是真正的老师。立足于慈悲及智慧而开展的行为,并不会注入恐惧或焦虑,即使他们呈现出来的行为是古怪、异于寻常或愤怒。他们带给学生的,是智慧与慈悲之花的绽放。

我们必须善加分辩,哪一些老师是行为虽古怪,但究竟而言是慈悲及善巧的,以及哪些是具挑衅性,真正造成学生伤害及创伤的老师。

换句话说,真正「狂智」所带来的成果是正面且显著的。当一位老师出自于慈悲而采取的激烈教导方法,其成果是学生心灵的成长,而不是创伤。创伤的造成是狂智行为中,缺少了解什么能真正利益学生的智慧,或缺少把学生利益置于首位的慈悲,或以上两者尽失的迹象。

值得关注的是,在金刚乘的历史中,我们所看到的这种激烈教学方式,是建立在师徒心灵关系极为成熟的背景下而开展的。他们并不是那么的普遍。马尔巴大师并没有要求他的每一位学生建造石塔。实际上,他对待其他学生的方式与对待密勒日巴的方式有很大的不同。他看见密勒日巴的潜能,并能了知以何种方式能带给他最大的利益。随后的历史众所周知,密勒日巴获得了证悟,并成为西藏有名的佛教大师。

这些激烈的教学方法,不仅用在非常成熟的弟子身上,或以稳固的信任及虔敬的师生关系为背景,更进一步地说,这也是一种不得已的方法。证悟的事业有四种,即:息、增、怀、诛。「诛」的事业仅用在那些不能接纳微细方法的人而设。因此,这教导方式并非一般的基准,仅是在特殊状况下,方才运用的方法。

因此,我们必须善加分辩,哪一些老师是行为虽古怪,但究竟而言是慈悲及善巧的,以及哪些是具挑衅性,真正造成学生伤害及创伤的老师。这两者是全然不同的,我们不能将两者混为一谈。有许多老师成为辅助学生认识自心的推手,但那绝不是凌虐。人身侵犯、性侵犯及精神虐待并非教学的工具。

 

金刚乘在现今的世界

现今,世界的连系及关系越来越密切,此时道德比任何时候都更为重要。从某种意义上,我们所有佛教行者都是佛陀教法的代言人。任何人都能透过点几下鼠标或使用谷歌快速搜寻来认识一位老师或僧人。这是好事,这让整个传承变得透明化。相较于过去,道德行为及道德违反也变得更为明朗化。

不言而喻,学校、企业及其他公共机构应遵循行为准则及法律,心灵团体组织更应成为道德行为的楷模。老师更是如此。在整个历史上,佛教老师及僧伽的重要角色之一无过于此,他们成为所服务的社群设立道德典范。

金刚乘被藏人视为珍贵的资产。这是我们的精神文化遗产,也是我们赐于世界的礼物。如今此教法及修持传承已传遍世界,因此了解此传承,并知道如何运用此有力的教法是极为重要的。

如我所述,金刚乘的修持核心,在于努力地持有净观。我们视一切念头、情绪,乃至最难面对的部份为觉知的体现,此觉知超越了时间。我们视一切众生为佛,并待他们如佛一般。我们观所住的世界为净土,如其所呈现般的觉悟。

视一切众生及一切事物犹如我们亲见佛陀一般,这样的传承,是金刚乘的主要修持。这是我们传承的血脉及生命,亦是我们所追求的最高道德。现今的时代充满了困惑与对立,这世界比起任何时候都更加需要此。

 

Treat Everyone as the Buddha

 

BY YONGEY MINGYUR RINPOCHE| AUGUST 9, 2017

 

The one time people ask me about ethics is when scandals or controversies happen in Buddhist communities,” says Mingyur Rinpoche. But, as he notes, ethical conduct has always been central to the Buddhist path. Here he explains what it means to live a virtuous life, what a student a should look for in a teacher, what to do when serious ethics violations occur, and more.

 

As a Buddhist teacher, I am often asked questions about meditation and profound Buddhist principles, like interdependence and emptiness. I am happy to share what I know on these topics. But I have noticed that people rarely ask me about ethics and how to live a virtuous life.

 

It is true that meditation is important in the Buddhist tradition. There’s no question about that. The same can be said about studying Buddhist ideas and philosophies. But in many ways, ethics and virtue are the foundation of the Buddhist path.

 

The Buddha himself lived a life of kindness, humility, and compassion. He fully embodied the teachings he gave, and the sangha that grew around him followed his example. There were many times when the students got off track and acted inappropriately—sometimes hilariously so—but these incidents were used as opportunities to clarify important values and to show the community how to live a life of virtue. From the early days of Buddhism, ethical conduct was as central to the path as meditation, study, and contemplation.

 

These days, the one time people do ask me about ethics is when scandals or controversies happen in Buddhist communities. Despite the clear importance of nonviolence and compassion in the Buddhist tradition, many students are not sure how to deal with these situations. I can see why they get confused. There are many different Buddhist lineages and schools, and it is hard to keep track of all their different teachings, practices, and ethical frameworks.

 

How do we use the principles of nonviolence and great compassion to guide us on important issues like finding an authentic teacher and working with the inevitable challenges that arise in the life of a community?

 

This is especially true in the Tibetan tradition, where we have three different approaches—which we call yanas or “vehicles”—that are woven together into one path of Buddhist practice. These are the Foundational vehicle of individual liberation, the Mahayana vehicle of great compassion, and the Vajrayana vehicle of indestructible wakefulness. This combination is one of the unique and beautiful aspects of Tibetan Buddhism, but it doesn’t always make things simple.

 

Ethics in Tibetan Buddhism

 

In Tibetan Buddhism we practice the three yanas together, and that includes the practice of ethics. Let me clarify.

 

The most basic ethical principle in the yana of individual liberation is nonviolence, the commitment to avoid harming others at all costs.

 

When we add in the Mahayana, we do not forget about nonviolence, but take it one step further with the practice of bodhichitta. This is the commitment to help all beings become fully enlightened.

 

Finally, Vajrayana brings in the notion of pure perception. In practicing the Vajrayana, we remain firmly grounded in nonviolence and the altruistic motivation of bodhichitta, but take the fruitional view. We treat everyone and everything as the embodiment of awakening. We commit ourselves to seeing ourselves, others, and the world around us as fundamentally pure, complete, and perfect.

 

This ideal of pure perception is embodied in the principle of samaya, the formal commitments that a Vajrayana practitioner adheres to. There many details about samaya, but simply put the essence of samaya is to practice pure perception to the best of one’s ability.

 

Many people misunderstand samaya and think it refers only to seeing the teacher as a buddha, a fully awakened being. That is part of samaya, but it misses the key point. Samaya is about seeing everyone and everything through the lens of pure perception. The sole purpose of viewing the teacher as a buddha is so we can see these same awakened qualities in ourselves, in others, and in the world around us. It is a tool that helps us to gain confidence in the purity of our true nature.

 

Vajrayana practice is rooted in the ideals of nonviolence and great compassion. There is no Vajrayana without them. So how do we use these principles to guide us on important issues like finding an authentic teacher and working with the inevitable challenges that arise in the life of a community?

 

The Point of Practice

 

The first point I’d like to make is probably an obvious one. Our practice should bring out the best in us as human beings. It should call forth our inner wisdom, our basic sanity, and the moral compass that we all have (whether we pay attention to it or not).

 

The most basic way to measure our practice, therefore, is the degree to which we are moving closer to the simple ideals of kindness, humility, honesty, and wisdom. If—as individuals or as communities—we find ourselves moving in the other direction, something is off track. None of us will act perfectly in every situation, but over time there should be a clear movement toward these basic and universal human values.

 

This is especially true of spiritual teachers. Buddhist teachers are role models and guides for the communities they lead, and they represent the Buddhist tradition to the non-Buddhist world. If, as students of the Buddha’s teachings, we strive to be kind, humble, and devoted to practice, then it only makes sense that our guides should embody these qualities. They should inspire us with their kindness and devotion. They should instill trust by the care and concern they show for others. Of course, we should not expect perfection, but it should go without saying that people who are guiding others should practice what they preach.

 

Finding a Genuine Teacher

 

When it comes to finding a genuine teacher, there are four things that are especially important.

 

The first is that the teacher should be part of an authentic lineage. Genuine teachers do not promote themselves; they promote their lineage. If a teacher brags about their qualities and realization and makes a show of their practice, that is probably an indication that something is not quite right. But if a teacher has studied and practiced under the guidance of other respected teachers, and honors their lineage by upholding its values and traditions, that is a good sign. Lineage alone does not make a teacher genuine, but it is important.

 

A genuine teacher is trustworthy and puts the needs of the student first.

 

The second quality to look for is commitment to study and practice. This one is pretty obvious. You would not take piano lessons from someone who’s not a good player themselves, would you? Of course not. The same is true here. If you are trusting someone with your spiritual well-being, you should be sure that this person knows the path first-hand. In order to do this, they should have a clear commitment to their own practice and training.

 

The third essential quality is compassion. As students, we need to feel confident that our teacher is on our side—that they have our best interests at heart and deeply care about us and our progress on the path.

 

Trust is critical here. A genuine teacher is trustworthy and puts the needs of the student first. The sign of a teacher who has this quality is that students feel safe and protected in their care. They know that no matter what is going on in their life, their teacher will always be there to guide and support them.

 

The fourth and final quality is the one that relates the most directly to ethics. A genuine teacher should uphold their vows and precepts. In the Tibetan tradition, that means they maintain whatever monastic or lay vows they have taken, adhere to the bodhisattva vows of the Mahayana, and keep the samaya vows of the Vajrayana.

 

This is no small feat, but it is very important. There are lots of details included in this one, and as students we may not know exactly what vows a person holds. But we can ask around and check to see if there are any questions about a teacher’s behavior or conduct. That is a good place to start.

 

In this day and age, it is not easy to find a perfect teacher. The time of the Buddha, when people seemed to get enlightened just by showing up, is long gone. We may not find a teacher who perfectly embodies all four of these qualities, but they should have all of them to some degree. If a teacher is completely lacking one or more of these qualities, it is probably best to move on.

 

Leaving a Teacher

 

These four qualities are a good general guideline to follow when looking for a teacher. But even when we do our best to research a teacher first, often we only really get to know the teacher after becoming their student. In the modern world, most of us do not have a monastery or Buddhist expert down the street. We do not necessarily know all the details about a teacher, or even have someone we can ask. So what do we do when we discover that a teacher is not quite what we hoped?

 

Many students of Tibetan Buddhism mistakenly think that they cannot, or should not, leave a teacher once they’ve made a commitment to them. This is not the case. The whole point of the teacher–student relationship is that it should benefit the student. It is not for the teacher’s gain or profit. If you have tried your best and have found that it is not a good fit, you can look for another teacher. This is not a problem or personal failing. It is good judgment.

 

The best way to leave is to do so without bad-mouthing the teacher or creating difficulties for those who may be benefiting from the teacher and the community. Leave on good terms, or at the very least, do not leave on bad terms. Simply move on with humility and do not feel bad about the fact that it did not work out.

 

The one caveat I would add here is that it is important to be honest with yourself. Leaving a teacher or community that does not seem to be a good fit is understandable, but if you find every teacher unworthy of your time, then you may want to look deeper into your own patterns to see what is going on. It may be difficult to make any progress on the path if you are looking for perfection.

 

Serious Ethical Violations

 

However, it is another matter altogether when a teacher is committing serious ethical violations. Leaving a teacher on good terms makes sense when the issue is just a matter of fit between teacher and student. When the issue is people being hurt or laws being broken, the situation is different.

 

If someone is being harmed, the safety of the victim comes first. This is not a Buddhist principle. This is a basic human value and should never be violated.

 

In that case, the violation of ethical norms needs to be addressed. If physical or sexual abuse has occurred, or there is financial impropriety or other breaches of ethics, it is in the best interest of the students, the community, and ultimately the teacher, to address the issues. Above all, if someone is being harmed, the safety of the victim comes first. This is not a Buddhist principle. This is a basic human value and should never be violated.

 

The appropriate response depends on the situation. In some cases, if a teacher has acted inappropriately or harmfully but acknowledges the wrongdoing and commits to avoiding it in the future, then dealing with the matter internally may be adequate. But if there is a long-standing pattern of ethical violations, or if the abuse is extreme, or if the teacher is unwilling to take responsibility, it is appropriate to bring the behavior out into the open.

 

In these circumstances, it is not a breach of samaya to bring painful information to light. Naming destructive behaviors is a necessary step to protect those who are being harmed or who are in danger of being harmed in the future, and to safeguard the health of the community.

 

Crazy Wisdom

 

The Vajrayana tradition has a history of eccentric yogis and yoginis and teachers who used extreme methods to guide their students. The story of Marpa asking Milarepa to build and then dismantle a series of stone towers is perhaps the most famous example of this. This tradition of “crazy wisdom” can be authentic, but unfortunately it is often invoked as a rationalization for unethical behavior that has nothing to do with wisdom or compassion.

 

The most important thing to know about these unusual teaching styles is that they are meant to benefit the student. If they are not rooted in compassion and wisdom, they are not genuine. Actions that are rooted in compassion and wisdom—even when they appear odd, eccentric, or even wrathful—do not instill fear or anxiety. They bring about a flowering of compassion and wisdom in the student.

 

We must distinguish teachers who are eccentric or provocative—but ultimately compassionate and skillful—from those who are actually harming students and causing trauma.

 

In other words, the results of genuine “crazy wisdom” are always positive and visible. When a teacher uses an extreme approach that is rooted in compassion, the result is spiritual growth, not trauma. Trauma is a sure sign that the “crazy wisdom” behavior was missing the wisdom to see what would truly benefit the student, the compassion that puts the student’s interest first, or both.

 

It is also worth noting that these extreme teaching styles we see in Vajrayana history took place in the context of a very mature spiritual bond between teacher and student. They were not all that common. Marpa didn’t make all of his students build stone towers. In fact, he treated his other students very differently from how he treated Milarepa. But he saw Milarepa’s potential and the approach that would benefit him most. The rest is history. Milarepa became enlightened and one of Tibet’s greatest adepts.

 

Not only are these extreme teaching methods used only with very mature students and in the context of a relationship of stable trust and devotion, they are also a last resort. There are said to be four kinds of enlightened activity: peaceful, magnetizing, enriching, and wrathful. Wrathful activity is only used for those who are not receptive to more subtle approaches. So again, this style is not a norm, but something that is only employed in certain circumstances.

 

Thus we must distinguish teachers who are eccentric or provocative—but ultimately compassionate and skillful—from those who are actually harming students and causing trauma. These are two very different things, and it is important that we do not lump them together. There are plenty of teachers who push and provoke students to help them learn about their minds, but that is not abuse. Physical, sexual, and psychological abuse are not teaching tools.

 

Vajrayana in the Modern World

 

Now that the world is so interconnected, ethics are more important than ever. In a sense, we Buddhist practitioners are all representing the Buddha’s teachings to the world. Anyone can learn about this teacher or that sangha with a few mouse clicks and a quick Google search. This is a good thing, because it makes the entire tradition more transparent. Ethical behavior—and ethical violations—are more visible than they were in previous times.

 

It should go without saying that when schools, businesses, and other public institutions are expected to adhere to a code of conduct and the laws of the land, then spiritual organizations should be role models of ethical behavior. And teachers even more so. Throughout history, one of the most important roles of Buddhist teachers and the Buddhist sangha was exactly this. They modeled ethical behavior to the communities that they served.

 

Vajrayana Buddhism is thought of as a precious treasure by Tibetans. It is our spiritual heritage and our gift to the world. Now that the teachings and practices of this tradition are spreading across the globe, it is important that we understand the tradition and how to work with its powerful teachings.

 

As I’ve said, the core of the Vajrayana tradition is that we strive to embody pure perception. We view our thoughts and emotions—even the difficult ones—as manifestations of timeless awareness. We see every person as a buddha, and we treat them as such. We view the world that we live in as a pure realm, enlightened just as it is.

 

This tradition of treating everything and everyone as though we are meeting the Buddha face-to-face is our main practice in the Vajrayana. It is the life blood of our tradition and the very highest ethical standard we could aspire to. In this day and age, with confusion and conflict all around us, the world needs this more than ever.

 

转自:释妙融 法师微博

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_5377ee910102wwik.html

 

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